Le Jatropha

 

 

La plante est Jatropha Curcas, une euphorbiacée très robuste, résistant à des climats semi-arides et se contenant de sols relativemet pauvres. C'est un arbuste donnant des graines dès la deuxième année de la plantation et dont la production d'étend sur environ 50 ans. Les graines sont très faciles à récolter, la productivité va de 0.4 à 12 tonnes de graines à l'hectare. Nous tablons de 2000 à 2500 kg de graines à l'hectare, soit environ 600 litres d'huile.

La plante est toxique, le tourteau ("seed cake" en anglais) est riche en azote et peut être utilisé comme engrais végétal.

1 kilo de graines (environ 1500 graines) donne 370 grammes d'huile. On peut extraire de la plante un colorant et des tannins, l'huile est siccative (c-à-d: polymérisable comme l'huile de lin) et peut servir à fabriquer un vernis.

Ceci semble indiquer qu'à part l'huile, qui peut également être utilisée pour la fabrication du savon, le contenu organique des graines est peu/pas utilisé. Je pense qu'on pourrait former (par pressage) des billettes de tourteau imprégné d'un peu d'huile, qui feraient un bon combustible pour des foyers à combustible solide. Ceci augmenterait beaucoup la productivité d'un champ de jatropha.

1 tonne de graines par an produira 370 kilos d'huile et 630 kilos de tourteau chaque année. En remettant 21 kilos d'huile dans les 630 kilos de tourteau, on obtiendra 651 kilos de billettes combustibles pour 349 kilos d'huile de jatropha. Ces 651 kilos de billettes combustibles et 349 kilos d'huile produiront au total environ 2.5 fois l'énergie extractible de l'huile seule. Les cendres restant dans le foyer sont un bon engrais pour le jatropha, celui-ci ne craignant pas les sols alcalins.

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The Jatropha System creates a positive reciprocity between raw material / energy production and environment / food production; i.e. the more energy Jatropha hedges produce, the more food crops are protected from animals and erosion. Also additional income is created, mainly for women.

Promotion des femmes : Amélioration des conditions de travail des femmes (moulin) et augmentation de revenus (production de savon)

Lutte anti-érosive : Lutte anti-érosive par la plantation de Pourghère comme haie vive et le renforcement des digues. Le Pourghère est planté comme haie de protection autour des jardins et des champs parce qu’il n’est pas brouté par les animaux.

Lutte contre la pauvreté: Réalisation de revenus dans le milieu rural par l’utilisation d’huile de Pourghère comme carburant et comme matière première dans la fabrication de savon. Production et utilisation de l’huile de Pourghère comme carburant dans les moteurs fixes · Augmentation de revenus par la vente de savon · Amélioration de la fertilité des sols. · Densité au Mali: environ 10 000 km de haies de protection · Vente d’engrais de Pourghère · Moteurs fonctionnant à l’huile végétale · Renforcement de l’indépendance économique des femmes · Réduction de l’érosion éolienne et de l’érosion hydrique. ·

Energie Renouvelable . Production: 1 kg de graines par mètre linéaire de haie et par récolte. ·· Substitution de gasoil par l’huile de Pourghère. · Financement des frais de mouture par la vente de graines de Pourghère · Augmentation des haies par la création des revenus grace à la vente des graines · Production d’huile: 0,2 l par kg de graines · Réduction de sortie d’argent des zones rurales · Distribution locale d’énergie dans le milieu rural. · Facilitation de la production de savon · Amélioration de la jachère ·

Divers: Effets insecticides et molluscicides · · Mécanisation de l’agriculture

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Analysis of seeds of different origin

 

Origin

Weight of 1000 seeds

Length of 1 seed (av. of 20)

Nicaragua 878 g 20,0 mm
Belize 813 g 18,8 mm
Mali (non toxic seeds from Mexico) 542 g 17,2 mm
Tanzania 682 g 16,8 mm

 

Seed density:

1 liter (1.000 ccm) very dry seeds 
of Cape Verde type
440 grams 70 g for 100 seeds =
630 seeds for 1 liter
1 liter (1.000 ccm) of selected seeds for planting from Tanzania (Cape Verde type) 549 grams 67,5 g for 100 seeds

 

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Oilseed Processing Technologies Adoption Survey - Case of Yenga Oil Press Technology in Southern Province of Zambia

The survey report was prepared for the Integrated Support to Sustainable Development and Food Security Programme (IP) in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) by Hamazakaza, Hamusimbi, Kadimba, Kapunda and Ndambo, Farming Systems Association of Zambia, January 2002

Executive Summary

Survey Objectives The survey objectives included among other things the following:

  • Carrying out of a comprehensive collaborating stakeholders appraisal in order to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of the Yenga oilpress technology transfer linkages.
  • Assessing the appropriateness of the Yenga oilseed processing technology in meeting the needs of the resource poor women, men and youth farmers.
  • Developing appropriate extension strategies for collaborating stakeholders on the Yenga oilpress technology transfer based on the constraints and impacts identified during the survey.
  • Assist develop recommendations on conditions necessary for possible Yenga oilpress technology replication at both national and regional level.

Factors Considered
The Oilseed Processing Technology Survey assessed the effectiveness and efficiency of the Yenga Oilpress technology transfer linkages, technology appropriateness for smallholder farmer income generation and nutrition security, and sustainability of the promotion of engendered oilseed processing technologies among the resource poor farmers in Zambia.

Study Design
Adoption study involved the desktop study for review of project secondary data, structured field study among smallholder farmers and selected personal interviews with key personnel who were involved in the implementation of the project that included Government (MAFF), NGO (Africare) and private sector involved in the manufacturing of the Yenga Oilpress and marketing of oil seeds. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS and MS Excel and provided basis for statistical justification of field survey findings and recommendations.

Study Findings
Africare Oilseed Processing Project (AOPP) aimed at improving the nutrition and income levels for the ever-increasing numbers of rural Zambians, especially women through the establishment of a market driven rural on- farm oilseed processing industry stressing rural entrepreneurship.

Despite tremendous promotion and dissemination efforts of the technology, current status show withering adoption of what was initially a very popular enterprise. Stakeholders concerned have accrued suspicions on effectiveness of the existing technology transfer linkages.

It is this that the Adoption Survey of the Oilseed Processing Technology on Household Food and Nutrition Security was conducted to assist stakeholders in coming up with technology dissemination strategies necessary for sustainable Yenga oil press adoption and utilization at national and regional levels.

The Project concentrated on the development and dissemination of village level oil processing technologies to improve nutrition security and economic well being of mostly women headed households most vulnerable to food and nutrition security problems.

Sunflower growing belts and areas with critical potential in oilseed village processing were selected as project areas. Selection was done with the guidance of the Crop Diversification Project and the Red Cross.

Promotion and distribution of Yenga oil presses was done through on-farm demonstrations, farmer groups training and organized field days, focusing on technical aspects of press maintenance, seed processing and appropriateness of seed varieties, and an agronomic package for sunflower and other oilseeds production.

Collaborative promotions with other NGOs with established development structures were initiated. Private manufacturing companies were contracted to meet certain Yenga oilpress and spare part needs based on field performance tests and farmer preferences. The project also promoted a seed multiplication programme for improved farmer access to composite seeds.

There has been a general decline in the number of farmers acquiring the Yenga oilpress in Southern province following the phasing out of the Africare Oilseed Processing Project. About 70% of the farmers who do not own Yenga oil presses cited high Yenga purchasing prices while 29.8% cited lack of dealers in their respective areas where they can purchase Yenga presses as the limiting factors to owning Yenga presses.

Most Yenga oilpress sales to smallholder farmers in the province were done through Africare Oilseed Processing Project. Of the total number (424) of Yenga oil presses sold in Southern province between 1992 - 1998 period, 56.4% were sold by the project office while 43.6% were sold through various marketing agents in the districts.

Marketing agents in the districts included; (1) Mazabuka Marketing Company in Mazabuka district; (2) ZATCO and Star Services in Monze; (3) ZATCO in Choma; (4) D.C.L and Elvina Enterprise in Kalomo and; (5) G.A.S in Livingstone.

About 55% of stopped using the oil presses due to low sunflower yields resulting into non-availability of sunflower seed for oil extraction while 36.4% indicated that their presses had broken down and lacked spare parts to repair them whereas. About 9% of the farmers sold off their Yenga oil presses after failing to make money out of the oilseed processing business.

The two major oilseed crops grown in Southern province include sunflower and groundnuts. Groundnuts are only used to a lesser extent for oil extraction. Farmers are financially better off selling groundnuts as seed grains as opposed to processing and marketing by-products.

Production estimates indicate a marginal downward trend in area and production of Sunflower in Southern province over the six-year period from 1992 to 1998 while the area and production of Groundnut have gone up by 120% (to 215,528 ha) and 60% (to 625 mt) respectively during the same period.

Sources of sunflower seed in the study area include commercial seed marketing companies outlets and agents found in major towns, and non-governmental organizations like PAM (SHAPES), Africare, and Care International, WVI and many other.

Most farmers opted for open pollinated sunflower varieties whose seed could easily be recycled by small-scale farmers without losing significantly in both grain and oil yields for some time. Record seed variety was preferred by most farmers because of its high oil yield (an average of 15 bottles x 750ml for a 50kg bag) and softness of the seed when crushing. Non-availability of sunflower seed locally (49.2%) and high prices of sunflower seed (8.5%) are the major problems farmers are facing when acquiring seed.

Farmers have diversified target oilseeds covering, new crops like sesame and pumpkin/squash seeds. Farmers however, face problem when extracting the new oilseeds due to poor adaptability of the present model of Yenga oil press to these crop seeds newly included on the crushing list.

Majority of the Yenga press owners (38.9%) crush on average one bag of sunflower per day. About 15% of the farmers crush at least two bags of sunflower daily while 5.5% and 1.5% of the farmers crush three and four bags of sunflower per day respectively. The average yield of cake per bag was estimated at 37 kilograms. Average production period is 6 months.

Most of the oil extracted (87.0%) is sold on both local markets and in nearest towns. About 9% of the oil extracted is retained for home consumption. Despite the high market potential for other extracted oil products like home made soap and jelly, farmers expressed ignorance on how to make such products.

Price determination is based on prevailing market price (30.0%), production costs (4.6%). Average price of a 750ml bottle of Yenga extracted cooking oil is ZMK2, 958 on average translating into ZMK44, 370 per 50kg bag of sunflower. Most of the sunflower cake realized is used for livestock feeding. However, only 21.5% of the farmers in oil extraction business were trained on livestock feed formulation by the Small-scale Oilseed Processing Project.

Major costs attributable to the Yenga oil press processing technology are classified as Technology Promotion costs, Entrepreneurship training costs, Yenga Press and Seed Distribution and Adoption costs.

The promotion of the Yenga oil press has contributed to enhanced demand for improved cultivars of sunflower seed, effective demand for Yenga presses and enhanced national and regional stakeholder collaboration. The technology has also assisted in narrowing the cooking oil deficit gap in the country.

At household (micro) level the technology has impacted positively on the lives of the beneficiaries at two levels; (1) the Yenga press owners through income and improved nutrition and; (2) the consumers through improvement in nutritional status and affordable sources of cooking oil.

Cost benefit analysis reveals that the Yenga press business is still a profitable undertaking. At the current level of operation it is possible for an entrepreneur to net K1, 314 400 (US$355) in 6 months.

A cost benefit ratio of 0.5 is thus possible given the current level of output and the prevailing prices. For every Kwacha invested in the business there is a corresponding return of half a Kwacha. The ratio can be much more if the entrepreneurs increase their level of output. The assumption in the analysis is that the majority are operating for only 20 days.

The return to labor is 0.64 indicating that for every Kwacha invested in the business there is a corresponding return of a K0.64. This is still attractive considering the fact that the opportunity cost of labour at the time when the Yenga press is fully utilized is off-season and that no competing enterprises were identified at the time of this study.

Efficiency could be attained to the fullest if farmers and Yenga press owners can increase their production of sunflower and by increasing the economies of scale and a vigorous search of an outside market away from the local areas.

Despite efforts made by the project in establishing institutional linkages for an enhanced Yenga oil press technology promotion and transfer, the existing linkages between the technology generation and transfer are not sufficient and effective enough to sustainably promote and transfer the oilseed processing technology among smallholder farmers.

The project placed special emphasis on encouraging women farmers and women clubs participation, as most vulnerable households to food and nutrition security problems in rural areas.

No serious cultural beliefs affected the promotion of the technology apart from isolated incidences of poor quality oil produced by some of the farmers (black, with a bad odor), which partially affected customer confidence and preferences.

Yenga Oil Press Technology has minimal negative effect/impacts on the environment with respect to deforestation and soil degradation.

The major problems threatening sustainability of the Oilseed Processing Technology include; (1) lack of human and institutional capacity by collaborating stakeholders to continue the technology promotion beyond project period; (2) lack of adequate sunflower seed for crushing due to poor yields; (3) poor Yenga spare parts back up; (4) lack of start up capital requirements for establishing oilseed processing enterprise and; (5) lack of leadership qualities and poor accountability among farmer clubs.

Conclusions
Promotion of the Yenga oil press has contributed to enhanced income and improved nutrition to the Yenga press owners and affordable sources of cooking oil for the local consumers at household level. There was also increased demand for improved cultivars of sunflower seed, Yenga presses and enhanced national and regional stakeholder collaboration. The technology assisted in narrowing the cooking oil deficit gap in the country.

Cost benefit analysis reveals that the Yenga press business is still a profitable undertaking with a possibility of an entrepreneur netting K1, 314 400 (US$355) in 6 months. A cost benefit ratio of 0.5 is achievable at the current level of output and the prevailing prices. For every Kwacha invested in the business there is a corresponding return of half a Kwacha. The return to labor (0.64) indicates that for every Kwacha invested in the business there is a corresponding return of a K0.64.

Efficiency could be attained to the fullest if farmers and Yenga press owners increased sunflower production and sunflower the economies of scale and a vigorous search of an outside market away from the local areas.

Despite efforts made by the project in establishing institutional linkages for an enhanced Yenga oil press technology promotion and transfer, the existing linkages between the technology generation and transfer are not sufficient and effective enough to sustainably promote and transfer the oilseed processing technology among smallholder farmers.

The project operation placed special emphasis on encouraging women participation and had no serious cultural beliefs, which affected the promotion of the technology. There was minimal if all any significant negative impacts on the environment with respect to deforestation and soil degradation.

Sustainability of the project is threatened by lack of human and institutional capacity for technology development, lack of adequate sunflower seed for crushing, poor spare parts back up, lack of start up capital required Yenga Oilseed Processing, lack leadership skills and poor accountability among farmer clubs members.

There is need to come up with technology dissemination strategies necessary for sustainable Yenga oilpress replication at both national and regional level for enhanced economic well-being and nutrition security of resource poor smallholder farmers. There is need to strengthen human and institutional capacity in promoting technologies like Yenga Oilpress processing if Zambian small-scale agriculture is to rise above subsistence levels and assume a business orientation.

Recommendations
For enhanced/sustainable up take and utilization of Yenga oil processing technology among smallholder farmers in peri-urban and rural areas at both national and regional levels, there is need to create conducive conditions for establishing the Oilseed Processing Business. Based on the adoption survey results and the stakeholder consultative/feedback workshop the following are the recommendations made for improved and sustainable Oilseed Processing Technologies in Zambia and to some extent the sub-Saharan region.

Seed Supply
In order to minimize the problems of non availability of sunflower and other oil crop seeds among smallholder farmers, there is need to; (1) establish seed banks in rural areas among smallholder farmers through on-farm oilseed multiplication and farmer training in oilseed production; (2) promotion of open pollinated oilseed varieties among smallholder farmers and; (3) strong collaboration and operationalization of links between the oilseed processing promoters and the Oilseed Research Team of the Soils and Crops Research Branch of MAFF for the development of improved/high yielding, diseases and pests resistant varieties. There should also be deliberate efforts to encourage local oilseed dealership among smallholder farmers. A lot can be learnt from the Oilseed on-farm multiplication scheme in Siavonga where oilseed multiplication is currently doing fine. A comprehensive Seed Needs Assessment for oilseeds in all target areas should be conducted.

Yenga Oil Press Acquisition and Accessories Back-up Services
For easy and affordable Yenga press acquisition and smooth accessory back-up services, manufacturers and promoters must establish local outlets (through sales agents) in high potential areas at district levels. Farmers can easily purchase their Yenga presses and accessories in nearest towns.

Standardization of Yenga presses and accessories and promotion of local artisans for service back-ups will assist easy the problems on unaffordable and non-available spare parts for Yenga press owners. Acquisition of Yenga presses could be made more affordable to farmers through establishment of Hire purchase schemes for able eligible smallholder farmers. Manufactures and promoters must also encourage production of training manuals on maintenance and repairs for each and every oil press model. Feedback mechanisms on oil press performance between manufacturers and users should be maintained to assist in fine-tuning the oil press efficiency.

Oil and Seed Cake Marketing
In view of the dwindling cooking oil market prices as a result of cheaper cooking oil from other countries, there is need Yenga press owner and promoters to embark on Yenga extracted oil /product development and promotion among local consumers. There is immediate need to train farmer in the oilseed processing business, improved aspects of labeling, packaging and product storage. This should be supplemented by education/information tips on nutritional factors of Yenga pressed cooking oil comparatively to industrial produced cooking oils. There is need for improved processing for improved oil quality. The Integrated Support to Sustainable Development Programme and Food Security Programme (IP) could assist on these aspects.

Knowledge of market and consumer trends is very vital for the oil producers if they are to keep themselves in business. As such there is need for national and regional edible oil market surveys. This will assist in knowing the area specific consumer demands and preferences. Market research must be a pre-requisite for establishing oilseed-processing business at both the farmer level and promoter level. There is also need to diversify in the oilseed product range to include; (1) essential oil extraction and; (2) peanut butter production. Rural farmers must consider exploring and exploiting outside markets for their Yenga pressed oil.

National and Regional Oilseed Processing Technology Replication
For sustainable national and regional replication of the oilseed processing technology, there is need to document and disseminate the field survey findings highlighting the lessons learnt. This will assist in fine-tuning the technology promotion and application strategies and make them more adaptive among the manufacturers, promoters and end users.

There is need to conduct regular market surveys for oilseed products and seed needs assessments to help determine the economical oilseed production and expected processing levels.

There is still need for capacity building through training on promising technologies and extension methodologies for grass root and broad based institutions involved in promotion of on-farm processing technologies as a way of adding value to smallholder farmers produce.

Following the Oilseed Processing Technologies Adoption survey, there is need to disseminate the survey results and publish conditions and recommendations necessary for establishing Oilseed Processing Business among Rural and Peri-urban Entrepreneurs.

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Biogas usinf Jatropha presscake:
JCL oil cake is a very good substrate for biogas production because of its high protein and mineral content. You just add the press cake to the cow manure with which you feed your biogas digestor. You should mix it with the cow dung and water, as one usuall does, so that it can flow easily into the digestor. You can use both, fesh cow dung or already fermented slurry. The latter is richer is biogas bacteria. You should start with small quantities of presscake, so the bacteries can adapt themselfs to the new composition of the substrate.

Climatic conditions:
Jatropha needs a minimum of 600 mm of rainfall. Or special local conditions like high water table, etc. It does not resist to water logging. It is not frost resistant. It can survive long dought periods of 7 or 8 months.

Engines for Jatropha oil, addresses:
The Lister type engines can be used with pure plant oil, without any modification.

All these Lister type engines are produced in Rajkot, India. The best ones seem to be the "Fieldmarshal" engines of the company P.M. Diesels Ltd, AJI Industrial Estate, P.O.Box 1003, Rajkot-360 003, India. Pone: +91 281-87401(-2-3-4), Fax: +91 281-87406, e-mail unknown.

They produce the engines normally in 3 qualities. But the better quality you can only order at the factory.

Household / domestic energy:
Why did'nt you ever looked at Jatropha oil as a source of domestic energy in an African household.
We propose the use of Jatropha oil a a domestic energy (see www.Jatropha.org, lamps and cookers). But the technical realisation of plant oil lamps and plant oil cookers is not very simple, because of the different combustion properties of the plant oil versus those of petrol (plant oil doesn't evaporate).
See lamps and cookers!

Lubrication oil
Is it possible to use Jatropha oil as lubrication oil?
Yes, it is. Test were carried out at TMW-engine factory in Germany and showed that pure Jatropha oil can be used as lubrication oil during 400 running hours in a slow turning diesel engine (Indian Lister type).

Medicinal properties:
What are the medical properties of the Jatropha plant?
Since botanically Jatropha is an Euphorbiaceae and very closely related to the castor plant, it also has similar properties: its seeds are used against constipation, the white latex serves as a desinfectant of mouth infections of small children, it also stops bleeding, the leaves are used against malaria and for massage of luxations.
The soap of Jatropha oil is supposed to be effective agains buttons, the oil is used to treat some scin diseases, like neuodermitis.

Pesticide:
Some publications show the oil to be a good general pesticide. If this is so why people are not using ir more?
It seems to be quite difficult to make a good formulation of the oil to applicate it to legumes. Our tests were negative, when we used it directly on the plants (the plants showed burning effects because of the oil properties). Ratnadass of ICRISAT Bamako was working with an extract (phorbol esters) of the oil, which was used in an emulsion of different compounds.

Rainfall:
Will Jatropha grow and produce seeds in a region of  500mm rain?
The limit of growth for Jatropha is between 600 and 500 mm of rainfall. The exact limit depends much on the local humidity conditions, i. e. in Cap Verde Islands it grows well with only 250 mm of rain, but the air is very humid (cloud milking for rain harvesting at some places).

Soap production:
How is Jatropha soap made?
The composition used in Mali is as follows (calculated for 1 litre of oil):
1 l of oil, 1/2 l of water, 150 g of pure NaOH (sodium hydroxyd) dissolved in the water. During stirring the oil, the water-NaOH solution is mixed with the oil, until a creamy consistence is achieved (like mayonaise). This is poured into a form, where the soap hardens (in tropical countries over night, in Europe that may take up to a week). After hardening the soap is taken out of the form and may be cut into pieces.

Water requirements:
Jatropha needs a minimum of 600 mm of rainfall. Or special local conditions like high water table, etc. It does not resist to water logging. It can survive long dought periods of 7 or 8 months. It also grows well in rainfall areas of 2000 mm and more.

Yield:
The yield of hedges was measured in Mali and an average of 0,8 kg of seeds per running meter of a hedge was found. High (5 - 6 m) and old hedges gave 2 kg per running meter.

If one  plants these hedges on a hectar with a distance of 3 meters, one has 3.300 meters. And a production of 2.640 kg of seeds. With a hand press this will give you about 660 litres of oil. A modern industrial expeller will give you about 825 litres.

DaimlerChrysler in India calculates with 2.500 kg of seeds per hectar. 

The yield depends very much on the soil and the rainfall and the origin of the plants. There are not yet high yield varieties identified.